Ādāb (singular: adab): etiquette; accepted manner of doing something

Arwāh: spiritual presence (plural of rūh)

Awliyah: plural of wali, meaning friend of Allah

Awrah: Parts of the body that must be covered in a

certain situation; private parts

Azrāil: Angel of Death

Barakah: blessing, abundance, goodness

Basmalah: Bismillahir-rahmanir-rahim

Zikr (also dhikr): of Allah

Fayz: effusion or increase of blessings, spiritual benefit

Ghusl: major or full ablution

Hadith: the sayings or actions of the Prophet Muhammad

(SAW) reported by his companions

Himmah: attention, assistance

Ibādah: act of worship. This includes all prescribed

acts of worship (e.g. salah and fasting) as well as every

act of obedience and love for Allah, inner and outer.

Imān (also iman): faith

Isti’āza: a phrase for seeking refuge in Allah (Auzu

billahi min ash-shaytan ir-rajeem Bismillahi ‘r-Rahmani


Istighfar: asking for from Allah

Janabah: state of major uncleanliness, necessitating

ghusl, such as after marital intercourse or menstruation

Hatm (also khatm): reading the Quran from start

to finish

Mazhab (also madhhab): one of the four schools of

fiqh (Islamic law)

Murīd/Mureed: student of the Murshid (spiritual


Murshid: spiritual guide, living tariqa master

Nafl/Nafila: voluntary or superogatory (act of worship)

Namahram: being of the opposite gender and not

close family; somebody that one could (theoretically)


Nūr: divine light

Nūrānī: pertaining to nūr, dazzling

Qadā: a “make-up” salah for any fardh salah that

was not performed at its correct time.

Rak’ah: unit of salah

Sādāt: master, leader (e.g. past master from tariqa)

Salah (also namaz, salat): the “formal” or “contact”

prayer, ritualized prayer, obligatory to be performed 5

times a day by Muslims

Salawāt: blessings upon the Prophet (SAW)

Shahādah: “witnessing”, the words of accepting Islam

(ashadu ‘an laa ilāha illa (A)llāh, wa ‘ashadu ‘anna

Muḥammada⒩ rasulullāh

Shaytān: Satan, devil

Silsilah: spiritual lineage, chain

Sitting according to Adab: a respectful manner of

sitting, as preferred during salah.

Sahūr: Pre-dawn meal partaken before fasting (especially

during Ramadhan)

Sunnah: tradition of the Prophet Muhammed


Sūrah: Quranic chapter

Tahajjud: salah performed in the middle of the

night (not a fardh salah)

Tariqa: way, path (refers to a specific tradition or

school of tasawwuf ), order

Tasbīh (plural: tasbīhat): a form of involving



Wakil: representative of murshid, proxy

Waswasa: whisperings of doubt from the Shaytān


Wudhū (also wud’oo): ablution performed before


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